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Enzymes improve water and soil quality in shrimp and fish ponds

30/12/2020 - 15:46

The way to quickly and sustainably improve pond water and soil quality is by directly adding enzymes and adding strains of useful microorganisms to the pond. This is the preferred method and is easy to apply because of its environmental friendliness.
 
The aquaculture industry has presented positives, but at the same time, challenges. One of the challenges is the deterioration of soil and water quality in the pond environment. This deterioration in quality is responsible for disease outbreaks, slow growth and decline in production.
 
Thus, the question is how to improve the quality of water and pond soil in the best and fastest way through which to improve farming performance as well as maintain sustainable environmental quality.
 
Intensive farming system allows to increase yields and bring high economic efficiency, however, in parallel, organic pollution also increases, toxins such as ammonia (NH), nitrite (NO), hydrogen sulfides ( HS) accumulates in the pond bottom sludge layer more and more with each crop and rapidly degrades pond bottom quality and water quality. This effect leads to a change in bacterial species composition in water and soil, which is reflected in the increasing presence of pathogenic bacteria in the pond environment.
 


Apply enzymes directly in the pond
 
The way to quickly and sustainably improve pond water and soil quality is by directly adding enzymes and adding strains of useful microorganisms to the pond. This is the preferred method and is easy to apply because of its environmental friendliness. This approach - which includes increasing the amount of beneficial microorganisms - helps to reduce the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, enhances the mineralization of organic matter and eliminates unwanted waste by fortifying direct addition of specific enzymes.
 
During biological regulation, enzymes act as a catalyst that accelerates the rate of biochemical reactions occurring in the soil and pond water. When adding enzymes to pond water or spraying (splashing) evenly on the pond bottom surface, they will rapidly decompose organic compounds that accumulate during the culture process.
 
Enzymes have a very specific catalytic mechanism of action in chemical reactions. For example, Protease Enzyme will hydrolyze insoluble proteins (residue, shrimp droppings, algae ...), Amylase enzyme decomposes polymeric sugars (polysaccharides) and starch, Cellulase Enzyme catalyzes cellulose decomposition - into main part of plant cell membranes….
 
Enzymes are produced naturally through the aerobic fermentation of organic matter by beneficial bacteria strains. For example, extracellular enzymes such as proteases, amylases, and cellulases are produced by Bacillus fermentation. Bacillus is found in pond sediments, and is added to ponds for biodegradation purposes. Some Bacillus species are capable of degrading nitrogen compounds and their extracellular large amounts of extracellular enzymes play a role in accelerating organic decomposition and reducing toxins such as ammonia.
 
Some specific enzymes can function under different environmental conditions, while beneficial microorganisms are very limited in their ability to function such as they need to have stable pH conditions and oxygen. High solubility, availability, density ... Specific enzymes can maintain their activity even in highly volatile environmental conditions or completely inactivated in the carrier. For example, the protease enzyme can operate under pH 4 - 11 at temperatures below 20 degrees C and more active at temperatures above 70 degrees C. Further, another advantage is in the Inactivated in the carrier, the enzyme property is preserved and reusable (Karem and Nicell, 1977).
 
Biomodulating Benefits of Enzymes
 
There is no one specific enzyme that works best in all conditions and circumstances (Ruggaber and Telley, 2006). An enzyme product consisting of many different enzymes will be most effective for biological regulation in improving the quality of soil and pond water. The effects of an enzyme product require the following:
 
- Catalytic decomposition of organic matter (such as dead algae, excess food, shrimp manure ...)
- Reduce sludge accumulation and decompose sludge.
- Reducing solid matter.
- Decomposition of plant debris
- Reduce the anaerobic conditions in the pond.
- Promotes decomposition and supplies easily-absorbed nutrients.
 
Enzymes drastically reduce the accumulation of organic humus, promoting organic decomposition - especially under intensive culture - in difficult areas such as pond bottoms, where most of the activity is moderated. out in the absence of oxygen. However, the impetus for this regulation would be many times more meaningful in the presence of beneficial microorganisms. Enzymes increase and facilitate microorganisms to work by organic decomposition, creating more active surfaces for beneficial microorganisms to grow.
 
According to Vinhthinhbiostadt
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