Effective application of enzymes in aquaculture

30/12/2020 - 15:40

Enzyme-fortified feed helps aquatic animals improve the absorption of nutrients, reduce toxins in the body, reduce environmental pollution, feed costs ...

The need
The expansion of global seafood production is increasing the demand for aquaculture feed. In which, fishmeal is the most important ingredient. Commercial fish feeds often contain high amounts of fishmeal because they are the main source of protein, accounting for 30-50% (Hardy, 1995). However, at present, fishmeal is rarely used in feed due to the scarcity of ingredients and high cost. This has encouraged manufacturers to seek ways to enhance the nutritional value of feed by adding enzymes, finding suitable alternatives to fishmeal.
The main purpose of using enzymes in food is to improve digestion. Furthermore, aquatic animals often lack some important digestive enzymes in the infancy, adulthood, or culture, and the application of these enzymes will help make better use of the nutritional content. digested by them.
Enzyme concept
Enzymes are one of the many proteins in biological systems. Their basic feature is a catalyst that speeds up the rate of biochemical reactions in soil and pond water, but they are not altered by that reaction. They are involved in all types of anabolism and catabolism of digestion and metabolism.
Enzymes provide effective complementary tools to inactivate anti-nutritional factors and enhance the nutritional value of plant-based proteins in food. They provide a natural way to convert complex food ingredients into absorbable nutrients.
Origin of the enzyme
Enzymes are produced by living organisms, from higher animals and plants to simplest single-celled forms. Examples are from bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus amyloliquifaciens and Bacillus stearothermophils; From mushrooms: Triochoderma longibrachiatum, Asperigillus oryzae, Asperigillus niger and yeast. While in animals, digestion of food is carried out by the animal's digestive system and by microorganisms that live in the intestinal tract. The bacteria present in the gut of shrimp and fish are the factories that produce many of the proteolytic enzymes. They can also produce cellulase in moderation.
Adding enzymes in food will help reduce digestive viscosity; Enhance digestion and absorption of nutrients especially fat and protein; Improved nutritional digestibility; Endogenous enzymes found in the shrimp and fish digestive systems break down large organic molecules such as starch, cellulose, and proteins into simpler, more digestible substances.
The intestinal tract of aquatic larvae is short and relatively underdeveloped compared to when they are adults. Hence, enzyme feeding can be a beneficial solution for larvae to reduce their mortality.
In addition, the addition of enzymes by introducing them to water or spraying them on the pond bottom will help decompose many organic compounds in the pond. Several enzymes have been used in shrimp and fish farming over the past several years. Each enzyme has a specific response for each of its catalysts; for example, the enzyme Protease has the ability to hydrolyze insoluble proteins; Cellulase catalyzes the breakdown of a cellulose compound; Beta-Glucosidase catalyzes the hydrolysis and biological degradation of Beta-Glucosides present in plant debris; lipase catalyst for fats.
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